One could consider the process of globalization as the complex process of federation of different social, cultural, economic and political realities within which not only agreements and alliances alternate or overlap, but also contaminations and hybridizations, at times producing new clashes and at other times producing new forms of dialogue.
As Lucio Levi observes, the nature of globalization is a qualitative change rooted in the scientific revolution of material production creating – alongside national markets and societies – a global market and a global civil society. This change can be understood in the light of new political theories, among which the federalist theory stands out. Federalism is, however, neither a static political vision nor a timeless political theory. It is – we can say – a kind of unaccomplished project constantly evolving in response to the new problems that history relentlessly raises.
In the current issue, this is evident in the study dedicated to the Indian, Pakistani and Malaysian federal systems which have each evolved in different ways starting from a common colonial origin. The analysis of strategies followed by central governments in the face of the problem of peaceful coexistence between multiethnic societies seems to indicate, however, that, in general, stability has been nurtured above all thanks to policies of centralization.
Globalization also fuels tensions and separatist tendencies within the federal state of Nigeria. Here, its colonial heritage and the subsequent policy of domination over territory and population have generated movements within civil society which seek identity and autonomy especially following a progressive emergence of problems at the occupational, ecological and economic levels. Religious claims also emerge as a solution to these needs for identity and autonomy; complicating the social panorama by increasing situations of violence.